Survey Research

CPA Social Indicator has been conducting public opinion polling on a large range of social and political issues in order to provide a channel through which the general public can voice their concern on issues that matter in their day-to-day lives. Thereby, CPA’s polling is instrumental in empowering the citizens of Sri Lanka to influence policy makers even in between elections. Since its inception in 1999, the following surveys have been conducted in line with the mandate of CPA.

Projects and surveys


Survey on strategic displacement during the ethnic conflict in the Northern and Eastern Provinces and selected areas in the Western Province of Sri Lanka

Social Indicator was commissioned by an independent researcher at the University of Amsterdam and
ETH Zurich, to conduct a large-N survey in the Northern, Eastern Provinces and the border villages, as
well as in some areas in the Western Province in order to assess the movement trajectories of persons
affected by the civil conflict during the period between 1983 – 2009. This aimed to shed light on patterns of fleeing and staying on the ground – during the civil conflict. The research project features an in-depth analysis of the Sri Lankan civil war, in order to build and test a theory of strategic wartime displacement, with a focus on the impact of the Tamil Tigers.


Public opinion poll on Sri Lanka’s Constitutional Reform – January 2019

This is the fourth opinion poll on Sri Lanka’s constitutional reform that was conducted by SI. The survey captured public perception pertaining to the manner in which people perceive the contents of
the constitution and their perception of the constitutional crisis that occurred in October 2018. The
survey was carried out in both Sinhala and Tamil languages with 1300 respondents across all 25 districts.
The survey incorporated key areas pertaining to the level of awareness, satisfaction and sources of
communication used by the public to obtain information with regard to the constitution of Sri

All fieldwork was conducted from the 24th of January to the 14th of February 2019. A total of 40 male and female field researchers from three ethnic communities – Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim participated in this study. Interviews were conducted in the first language of both the respondents and the field researcher.

Download the full report here.


Survey on Contemporary Issues in Sri Lanka – January 2018

SI was commissioned by the South Asia Policy and Research Institute (SAPRI) to conduct a survey on ‘Contemporary Issues in Sri Lanka’ with 2000 respondents. The survey aimed to capture the current socio-economic and political views of Sri Lankans in terms of understanding as to how people assess the performance, as well as service delivery of the promises that were made by the government, the status of the economy, development, reconciliation, the constitutional reform process, the status of women and various political institutions prevalent in the country. Field work for the survey was conducted throughout the month of December.

Survey for the Community Memorialization Project – April 2018

SI was commissioned by Search for Common Ground (SFCG), to conduct a quantitative study in Matara, Ampara and Mannar districts with a sample of 300 respondents, on SFCG’s community memorialization project that was implemented to create an environment that acknowledges and protects multiple historical memories on violent conflicts across socio-ethnic, political and regional divides in Sri Lanka. Field work conducted during the month of March.

Values and Attitudes survey on 70 Years of Independence in Sri Lanka – August 2018

This study captured public opinion on areas pertaining to governance, democracy, political
ideology, international relations, peace and reconciliation – following 70 years’ of Independence in Sri
Lanka. In particular, it focused on the youth vote and the extent to which there is a democratic deficit between this segment and their electoral representatives. The overarching idea of the survey was to map out what Sri Lanka may look like once it celebrates 100 years of independence with millennials in charge of government and governance.

The survey was carried out using a semi structured questionnaire administered through face to face interviews with 2300 respondents in both Sinhala and Tamil languages across all 25 districts. All fieldwork was conducted between 10th of August to the 10th of October 2018. A total of 60 male and female field researchers, from the three ethnic communities – Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim participated in this study.

Download the full report here.

Survey on Buddhist Monks

SI was commissioned by the University of Otago to conduct a survey with Sri Lanka’s sangha, comprising
of all novices and Bikkhus island wide. The purpose of the survey was to obtain an in-depth understanding about the Buddhist monastic law in Sri Lanka, its history and its present situation in the
context of Sri Lankan law and government. The survey was conducted with approximately 2000 Bikkhus
and assessed the challenges faced by Buddhist monks and temples. Data collected from this research
was used in numerous journal articles and books in relation to the field study.


Conducted a workshop on City Planning and Urban Development – July 2017

CPA engaged with a variety of communities and stakeholders in order to raise awareness around urban development and building sustainable and resilient cities. Fields of View (FoV) is a non-profit organisation based in Bangalore, India and designs workshops where different disciplines can come together and have a meaningful dialogue to understand cities better. CPA conducted one day workshop on July 13th 2017 with researchers from FoV – a morning session that involves playing the City Game with 10-15 participants followed by a workshop with around 5 practitioners working in the area of urban development to design a game for a Colombo – Bangalore collaborative research study.

A key gap identified in Sri Lanka’s urban development planning is the lack of proper consultation with communities, especially those directly affected by city development. Therefore the outcome of this proposed project would be the introduction of new techniques that move away from the traditional model of community and stakeholder consultations. We hope it will be a unique and useful model to engage various actors on urban development in Colombo and interrogate the policies and plans of the Ministry of Megapolis and Western Development and the Urban Development Authority.

A Fact finding survey in the Northern Province on rural indebtedness. – December 2017

Social indicator was commissioned by the Office of National Unity and Reconciliation to conduct a survey on rural indebtedness among 300 Female Headed Households in the Northern Province. The survey sought to capture the current economic status of female headed households, economic activities they are engaged in, the sources of assistance they have, the level of indebtedness of female headed households and the types of indebtedness inherent among female headed households. The survey highlighted the current plight faced by women of the Northern Province, where many are victimized by unauthorized lending activities undertaken in the guise of helping underprivileged women, examined the socio-economic conditions of the war affected people and the extent to which the post -war reconciliation process has assisted them. Field work was conducted during the month of November.

Developed a baseline report on Sri Lanka’s GSP+ Compliance – March 2017

Social Indicator was commissioned by the Democratic Republic International to provide a baseline report on Sri Lanka’s GSP+ Compliance in March 2017. An analysis was presented under four thematic areas – (1) UN Human Rights Conventions (conventions 1-7), (2) ILO Labour Rights Conventions (conventions 8-15), (3) UN Conventions on Environmental Protection and Climate Change (conventions 16-23) and (4) UN Conventions on Good Governance (conventions 24- 27). An overall summarized analysis of the four conventions were made available with a data base that consisted of a wide array of sources that helped to inform the in-depth analysis of the research. The baseline report provided a qualitative monitoring of the instruments and identified, (a) Progress made since 2010, (b) Shortcomings, (c) Indications of measures by Government to overcome shortcomings, (d) Recommendations for overcoming shortcomings and further reform, (e) Where applicable, constraints limiting or preventing Sri Lanka’s ability to achieve effective implementation. The objective of the report was to ensure a solid and robust reference point for monitoring progress if and when the concession was restored, provide the seminal importance of the instruments under review for human rights protection. The baseline report intended on facilitating compliance by identifying in advance areas for improvement and reform.

Opinion Poll on Constitutional Reform – Wave 3

March 2017 – This is the third public opinion poll conducted by Social Indicator that focuses on the current constitutional reform process. Conducted with the objective of strengthening public discourse and increasing awareness on the reform process in Sri Lanka, this report also indicates significant areas that all those involved in the reform process should pay careful attention to at this critical juncture, especially with regard to the urgent need for a communication strategy on constitutional reforms. The survey recorded public perceptions with regard to the performance of the Government, the referendum, priorities for the Government going forward and key aspects of the new constitution. The survey was conducted in all 25 districts of the country, and obtained the opinion of 1992 Sri Lankans who were randomly selected from the four main ethnic groups. Field work was carried out from March 14 – 19, 2017.

Download the full report here.


National Poll evaluating public opinion on political and social issues in Sri Lanka

March 2017 – Social Indicator was commissioned by the International Republican Institute to conduct an all island opinion poll looking perspectives on current political and social issues in Sri Lanka. Conducted with a sample of 3000 respondents, fieldwork was conducted from late March to mid May 2017.


The Making of a World Class City: Displacement and Land Acquisition in Colombo

January 2017 – ‘The Making of a World Class City: Displacement and Land Acquisition in Colombo’ explores the process of making Colombo a world class city, begun post-war under the Rajapaksa regime and its continuity under the yahapalanaya government. The previous government’s Urban Regeneration Programme (URP), which is being continued by the present Government, aims to beautify the city and create a slum-free capital. This has, resulted in large scale eviction and relocation of the working class poor away from the city center.

The report highlights the continued lack of transparency and accountability, difficulties of obtaining information and in the language of the person affected and misinformation in attempts to prejudice the rights and interest of the affected family, a clear lack of state policy that accounts for and seeks to serve the interests of those affected among other key issues, alongside other problems arising out of a state-centric understanding of eminent domain, an expanding ‘public purpose’ in state acquisitions of land and the entrenched vulnerabilities of affected persons. This report also highlights the urgent need for the National Involuntary Resettlement Policy to be updated and enshrined in law. The need for national and provincial policy guidelines, criteria for participation, transparency, accountability, promotion of in-situ redevelopment and upgrading, elimination and minimising involuntary resettlement as well as adequate compensation prior to and during land acquisition and resettlement processes is evident when looking at the experience of communities forcibly relocated.

Download the full report here.


National survey on ‘Voter Education and Awareness in Sri Lanka’

January 2017 – Social Indicator was commissioned by the International Foundation for Electoral Systems to conduct a national survey with the adult population in Sri Lanka aged 18 years and older with the objective of evaluating the citizens’ understanding of the voting process, citizens’ confidence in the electoral reform process, and attitudes towards political participation, among other political and electoral issues. The survey also looked at the differential needs of women, persons with disabilities and other marginalized groups. Fieldwork took place from January 16th to the 15th of February 2017.


Living it down: Life after relocation in Colombo’s high rises

December 2016 – ‘Living it down: Life after relocation in Colombo’s high rises’ looks at findings from a survey conducted with families who were evicted or relocated under the previous regime to Urban Development Authority built high-rises complexes. Three complexes were selected for this survey and out of a total of 1968 apartments across the three sites, SI interviewed respondents living in 1222 apartments.

This survey builds on CPA’s work since 2013 on evictions in Colombo and the three complexes from which the respondents were interviewed were selected because residents were moved there prior to November 2014, which meant that they had been living in the buildings for more than one and half years. The findings of this survey raises many concerns about the future of those living in the UDA high-rise complexes and demands a complete review of the URP. In less than three years of occupation, there appears to be a considerable deterioration in the quality of life, income mismatch leading to debt, high expression of desire to move, disconnect with the built environment. Fieldwork for the study commenced on the 9th of July 2016 and concluded in early August.

Download the full report here.


Opinion Poll on Constitutional Reform – Wave 2 

October 2016 – This is the second public opinion poll conducted by the Centre for Policy Alternatives this year that focuses on the Constitutional reform process and it was conducted with the objective of strengthening public discourse and increasing awareness on the reform process in Sri Lanka. While the survey conducted by CPA in January 2016 looked at the broad areas of reform where public opinion was sought on the Bill of Rights, devolution, police and land powers, merger of the Northern and Eastern Provinces and other proposals, this survey interrogated deeper into public awareness of the reform process, strengthening of Provincial Councils, the place of religion in the new Constitution, Executive Presidency and other key issues. Data was collected from all 25 districts and captured the opinion of 2002 Sri Lankans.  Fieldwork took place from August 29 – September 23, 2016.

Download the full report here.


Viewership Survey for the project “TEAM Outreach for Reconciliation (TOUR)

June 2016 – Social Indicator was commissioned by Search for Common Ground to carry out a viewership survey of the drama ‘Sikka Team’, an episodic multi- nation drama created by SFCG with the intention of helping to transform social attitudes and diminish violent behaviour in countries that grapple with deeply rooted conflict.  SI was commissioned to evaluate the peace building TV series in order to determine the relevance and response the television series had on its viewers. The survey also explored the extent to which the issues raised in the programme were relevant to the target audience, as well as its relevance on the current socio-political dynamics that existed within Sri Lanka. Furthermore, the survey ascertained whether the target audience changed either their mind set, attitude, behaviour or perspective towards persons originating from different socio-political, cultural and economic backgrounds in a multi ethnic, multi-cultural society.


Dynamics of Sinhala Buddhist Ethno-Nationalism in Post-War Sri Lanka

April 2016 – ‘Dynamics of Sinhala Buddhist Ethno-Nationalism in Post-War Sri Lanka’ examines the phenomenon of ethno-nationalism, broadly defined as “the extreme political expression of ethnicity”, among the island’s largest ethno-religious group – the Sinhala Buddhist community, and the dynamics of Sinhala-Buddhist ethno-nationalism in the post-war context. Contrary to some interpretations that ethnicity has lost its power as a tool for political mobilisation, this report contends that Sinhala-Buddhist ethno-nationalism remains a highly potent force. Nationalistic fervour appeared to be on a downward trajectory following the January 2015 presidential election in which Maithripala Sirisena won campaigning on an anti-corruption platform which pulled together a number of divergent political forces. However, the growing disenchantment in the Sinhala-Buddhist community on many fronts, their burgeoning economic woes in particular, at least in part has made it easier for nationalistic political posturing to re-capture its lost appeal.

This report also argues that while the vast majority of Sinhala Buddhists embrace rationalistic values and are amenable to sharing power with the minorities, nationalistic forces within the community continue to subsume moderate voices. Empirical evidence based on the ‘Democracy in post-war Sri Lanka’ surveys were used to highlight the ground realties indicated in the report.

Download the full report here.

Democracy in Post War Sri Lanka – Wave 6 April 2016
‘Democracy in Post War Sri Lanka’ is an annual survey conducted since 2011, which captures public perceptions on democracy in Sri Lanka today. The findings of this survey identifies people’s opinion on the economy and development, trust in institutions, perceptions on politics and transitional justice. The survey was carried out in all 25 districts of the country, and captured the opinion of 2102 Sri Lankans from the four main ethic groups. Selection of the respondents were random across the country. Fieldwork was conducted from February 18 th – March 3 rd 2016.

Download the report in full here.


Opinion Poll on Constitutional Reform

February 2016 – An island wide opinion poll was carried out to gather views on key issues being discussed in Sri Lanka’s Constitutional reform process, and what changes the public hopes to see in the new Constitution. The survey recorded public perceptions with regard to the Bill of Rights, devolution, police and land powers, role of religion in the constitution, merger of the northern and eastern provinces and other key proposals. The survey was conducted in all 25 districts of the country, and obtained the opinion of 1991 Sri Lankans who were randomly selected from the four main ethnic groups. Field work was carried out from 17th to the 25th of January 2016.

Download full report here.


Consumption and Perceptions of Mainstream and Social Media in the Western Province

January 2016 – Consumption and perceptions of mainstream and social media in the Western Province’ is a study of a demographic that holds vital socio-economic and political keys to the country’s future post-war, and has yielded interesting insights into perceptions around, and consumption of mainstream as well as online, new and mobile media. The survey offers government, media, civil society and social entrepreneurs insights into the platforms, vectors, languages and mediums through which news and information can best seed the public imagination. Field work was conducted from 5th June to 16th July 2015, and captured the opinion of 2000 respondents from the four main ethnic groups, across all Divisional Secretariat Divisions in the Western Province.

Download the full report here.

Download the Executive Summary in Sinhala and Tamil, and infographics here.


Democracy in Post War Sri Lanka – Wave 5

December 2015 – ‘Democracy in Post War SL’ is an annual survey conducted since 2011, which captures public perceptions on democracy in Sri Lanka today. The findings of this survey identifies people’s attitudes, views and confidence on key matters, pertaining to the level of democracy in relation to the government, human rights, reconciliation, the economy, development , politics, national security and freedom in the country. The survey was carried out in all 25 districts of the country, and captured the opinion of 2103 Sri Lankans from the four main ethic groups. Selection of the respondents were random across the country. Fieldwork was conducted from October 20th to November 15th 2015.

Download the report in full here.


General Election 2015 Pre-Election Opinion Poll

August 2015 – An island wide opinion poll was carried out with the objective of obtaining Sri Lankan voters’ perceptions and attitudes in relation to key topics that were discussed in the lead up to the General Elections in August 2015. The survey was carried out in all 25 districts of the country, and captured the opinion of 1986 Sri Lankans who were randomly selected from the four main ethnic groups. Field work was carried out from the 22nd to the 29th of July 2015.

Full report and infographics based on findings from the survey can be accessed here.


Democracy in Post War Sri Lanka – Wave 4

June 2015 – ‘Democracy in post-war Sri Lanka’ sought to record public perspectives on democracy in Sri Lanka today and the findings are presented under four key sections – The New Government, Security and Freedom, Trust in Institutions and Media in Sri Lanka. The first wave was conducted in 2011 and the second wave in 2013and the third in 2014.

Conducted in the 25 districts of the country, the 2015 survey captured the opinion of 1987 Sri Lankans from the four main ethnic groups. The selection of respondents was random across the country except in a few areas in the Northern Province where access was difficult. Fieldwork was conducted in March 2015.

Download the report in full here.


‘A United Sri Lanka’ and ‘Yahapalanaya’ – two infographics based on findings from the survey  can be accessed here.

Forced Evictions in Colombo – High-rise Living

May 2015 – CPA’s second report on forced evictions in Sri Lanka’s capital city looks at evictions that took place under the previous Ministry of Defence and Urban Development, where as part of its beautification agenda they aimed to create a slum free Colombo by 2020. The report discusses life after relocation to the high-rise buildings as well as the struggles of those still awaiting housing.

Download the full report in English and the Executive Summaries in Tamil and Sinhala.

‘Evicted under the World Bank’s Watch’ a web based output based on on-going research with affected communities can be here accessed here.

Sri Lankan perceptions on life post-war

May 2015 – ‘Sri Lankan perceptions on life post war’ is a series of infographics looking key public opinion data from Social Indicator’s ‘Democracy in Post War Sri Lanka’ survey (conducted annually since 2011) on the theme of reconciliation, six years after the end of war.

Click here to access the infographics.


Presidential Election 2015 

December 2014 – Social Indicator conducted an island wide pre election opinion poll with the objective of identifying Sri Lankan voter perceptions and attitudes on key topics being discussed in the lead up to the election and thereby contribute to the current political discourse.

Conducted in the 25 districts of the country, this opinion poll captured the opinion of 1999 Sri Lankans from the four main ethnic groups. Fieldwork was conducted from the 10 – 20 December 2014.

Please click here to read the full report in English online, or here to download it as a PDF.

Download this report in Sinhala and Tamil.

Download an infographic with findings from the survey in high resolution here.

Social Indicator also conducted two online surveys in the lead up to the Presidential Election. The first online survey findings and infographic can be accessed here, and the second here.

Democracy in Post War Sri Lanka – Wave 3

October 2014 – Democracy in post-war Sri Lanka’ sought to record public perspectives on democracy in Sri Lanka today and the findings are presented under five key sections – Economy and Development, Post War Sri Lanka, The Government, Media and Role of Religion and Ethnicity in Politics. The first wave was conducted in 2011and the second wave in 2013.

Conducted in the 25 districts of the country, the 2014 survey captured the opinion of 1900 Sri Lankans from the four main ethnic groups. The selection of respondents was random across the country except in a few areas in the Northern Province where access was difficult. Fieldwork was conducted from June – July 2014.

Download the full report here or read it online here.

Infographics with findings from the survey – ‘#happysrilankans’ and ‘5 Facts about Sri Lanka’s Up Country Tamil community’.

Forced Evictions in Colombo – The Ugly Price of Beautification

April 2014 – Social Indicator and the Legal Unit released a report about the forced evictions in Colombo under the UDA’s Urban Regeneration Programme.

Drawing from interviews with affected citizens from across different parts of the city and short case studies of the experience of three different communities – Java Lane and Mews Street in Slave Island and Castle Street in Borella, the report outlines the major issues and concerns with respect to the forced evictions in Colombo. It questions both the ostensible goals and purpose underlying the Urban Regeneration Project as well as the means and processes employed by the UDA and the Government of Sri Lanka to realise them, in particular those pertaining to land acquisition and involuntary resettlement.

Link to the report in English, Tamil and Sinhala.

Commentary on the Census on human and property damages due to conflict – 2013

March 2014 – ‘The Census on human and property damages due to conflict – 2013’ is one of the key recommendations in the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission report. On 7th December 2013, Social Indicator published an article on Groundviews that highlighted some key issues in the census schedule and methodology.

As a follow up to that initial article, Social Indicator compiled a detailed report on issues arising from this census. Information for this report was gathered through interviews with data collectors/ Grama Niladharis and households in the Northern and Eastern Provinces, as well as census department officials. Some of the significant problems of this census was related to the census schedule itself and the methodology.

Interviews were conducted in the North and East during the month of January and February and the report was released in March 2014.

Link to the report in English or Tamil.

Read the Executive Summary in Sinhala.



Democracy in Post War Sri Lanka – Wave 2

August 2013 – In 2011, Social Indicator conducted the first ‘Democracy in Post War Sri Lanka’ survey, which sought to record public perspectives on democracy in Sri Lanka today – what it means to people, how they participate in it, their perceptions of and confidence in governance frameworks and key institutions.

Fieldwork for the second wave of the survey was conducted in August and September 2013 and interviewed 1990 respondents from the 25 districts. Additions to the questionnaire included questions on tolerance, national identity, politics and religion, international relations.

Link to the report here.

Read the Executive Summary in Tamil or Sinhala.

Northern Provincial Council Elections: Pre-Election Survey

August 2013 – Social Indicator conducted an opinion poll in August 2013 in the run up to the Northern Provincial Council Elections. Elections for the NPC were held on the 21st of September – the first time in 25 years. The poll did not intend to forecast the election results but rather to assess the views of the people with regard to the upcoming election, issues that are important to the community and changes experienced since the end of war. This poll was conducted among 617 registered voters in all five districts in the Northern Province.

Download the report (as PDFs) in English, Tamil or Sinhala.

Read online in English, Tamil or Sinhala.

Environmental Scanning for the United Nations Population Fund

July 2013Commissioned by the United Nations Population Fund, CPA conducted an environmental scanning in order to aid the successful implementation of the UNFPA’s 8th country program by monitoring critical developments in Sri Lanka and analysing their implications for the Fund’s programmes and position in the country. This project was implemented with the understanding that a greater knowledge and a wider range of information regarding the socio-political conditions of Sri Lanka, with special attention on UNFPA programme areas and interests will improve the “UNFPA’s ability to respond proactively to risks and opportunities,” augment its general awareness and preparedness, and allow UNFPA to strategically operate its Sri Lankan program in a more informed and effective manner.

A Tolerant Sri Lanka – Online Poll

April 2013 – The first half of 2013 saw a rise in incidents and publicly expressed sentiments against the Muslim community in Sri Lanka by groups who claimed to represent the rights of Sinhala Buddhists. It is in this context that Social Indicator created an online questionnaire to gauge the views of people on this issue. The questionnaire was open for responses on Typeform from April 3 – April 11 and was answered by 975 respondents.

The findings of the online poll can be read here.

Survey on People’s Opinion of the LLRC report

January 2013 – On behalf of the Outreach Unit of the Centre for Policy Alternatives, Social Indicator developed two questionnaires in order to obtain people’s opinion about the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission report. Two semi-structured questionnaires were designed and they were for those who gave testimonies to the LLRC (LLRC Witness Survey) and those who attended the LLRC awareness workshops conducted by the Outreach Unit of CPA (LLRC Workshop Participant Survey).

The questionnaire for those who gave testimonies attempted gauge awareness of the content of the report, their expectations of the LLRC, opinion on the report and recommendations and the implementation of the action plan. The questionnaires for workshop participants looked at respondent opinion on LLRC recommendations and Government action plan as well as their thoughts on implementation and the key actors of that process.

The report with findings from the two surveys can be read here.


Labour Market Survey of the Batticaloa District

July 2012 – SI was commissioned by Heartland Alliance for Human Needs & Human Rights to conduct a labour market survey in the Batticaloa District in order to better understand current trends in the local labor market. The study looked at challenges faced by youth in the district, the demand for and existing gaps in employment and job creation. The study also highlighted ways in which Heartland Alliance can adapt the project’s current vocational training model to more accurately match the skills taught to project participants with viable employment opportunities in the region.

Together with a local partner, Heartland Alliance has been implementing a youth-in-transition project in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka since 2009. This project aims to socially and economically empower conflict-affected youth in eastern Sri Lanka. Anchored in a residential vocational training curriculum, this project offers six months of guided instruction in electrical wiring, carpentry, tailoring, and catering.

External Impact Evaluation of DAI Activities in Alankulam

March 2012 – SI conducted an external impact evaluation of DAI’s work under the RISEN programme in Alankulam (aka Punnanai East), Koralai Pattu North DS division in the Batticaloa District. USAID/OTI’s RISEN programme has been working in Batticaloa district since February 2010, and took over several grants initiated in Batticaloa District in 2009 under the RISE programme.

The objectives of the evaluation were to assess overall programme impact in and around Alankulam, compare types of grants and their individual components to determine which is most effective and why, assess grantees to determine which are most effective and why, gather and evaluate unexpected outcomes of the grants, either positive or negative, assess whether grants in Alankulam achieved their stated objectives and why and provide guidance on future interventions in Alankulam and in other RISEN target areas.

Evaluation of Room to Read Sri Lanka Enhanced Girl’s Education Programme

January 2012 – SI provided data collection services to the American Institutes of Research for their evaluation of Room to Read’s Enhanced Girl’s Education Programme in Sri Lanka. The programme seeks to motivate, empower and educate girls to enroll and remain in school through a system of ongoing support. The programme specifically identifies schools where girls are at high risk of dropout, and gives them material support, life skills education activities, tutoring, and the involvement of mentors and advocates who help girls remain and succeed in school. The three primary goals of the evaluation were to investigate the extent to which the Enhanced Girls’ Education program (1) is being implemented as it has been envisioned, (2) leads to intended program outcomes, and (3) leads to broader social outcomes. This evaluation is being conducted by the American Institutes of Research in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam and Zambia.


A study on Knowledge, Practices and Social Attitudes towards Gender and Gender Based Violence in Colombo, Nuwara Eliya, Hambantota and Batticaloa districts

June 2011 – On behalf of CARE International Sri Lanka, SI conducted a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) study to engage men and boys as catalysts for gender based equity in Sri Lanka. The study was designed by Partners for Prevention (P4P), a UN interagency initiative with UNDP, UNFPA, UNIFEM and UNV. The principal researchers for the Sri Lanka study were Prof. Neloufer de Mel and Ms. Shyamala Gomez. Fieldwork for the study commenced in January 2012 and SI conducted 2000 Male interviews & 1000 Female interviews in the selected districts of Batticaloa, Hambantota, Nawalapitiya and Colombo for the quantitative component.

Childhood experiences, attitudes about relations between men and women, intimate relationships, fatherhood/motherhood, health and wellbeing, awareness about policies were some of the key themes explored in this survey. Given the sensitive nature of the data collected, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) were used for data collection.

Download the full report here.

Democracy in Post war Sri Lanka
February 2011 – With the support of the Friedrich Naumann Stiftung (FNST), SI conducted a study that sought to record public perspectives on democracy in Sri Lanka today – what it means to people, how they participate in it, their perceptions of and confidence in governance frameworks and key institutions. The survey ‘Democracy in post-war Sri Lanka’, carried out in all 25 districts of the country, interviewed 1993 people from the four main ethnic groups.
Link to the top line report here.

Professional participation of women in mainstream print and electronic media in Sri Lanka
January 2011 – SI conducted a study on behalf of the Sri Lanka Press Institute (SLPI) on the professional participation of women in mainstream print and electronic media in Sri Lanka from December 2010 to July 2011. The study was conducted to gather data on the total number of full time journalists employed in Sri Lanka’s print and electronic media, detailed data on the numbers and designation and experience of women working in the three largest newspapers, TV and Radio organizations, to assess women’s participation in the media in terms of decision or policy making positions and to identify factors that contribute to as well as inhibit gender equality in media.

SI utilized both quantitative and qualitative approaches to conduct this study. The quantitative assessment was conducted in the form of an institutional audit to gather employment data while in-depth interviews were conducted as the qualitative assessment to understand the attitudes and perceptions regarding what inhibit gender equality in media.


Mapping exercise on Social Integration in Sri Lanka

November 2010 – Social Indicator (SI) conducted a mapping exercise on behalf of Facilitating Local Initiative for Conflict Transformation (FLICT) of the German Development Corporation (GTZ). This was in order to facilitate their internal discussions to design their Social Integration program along with the Ministry of National Languages and Social Integration which will be launched in 2011. SI looked at key areas such as human rights violations, religion and ethnic based violence, displacement due to conflict, development and tsunami and economic indicators such as poverty, access to water and electricity when conducting the mapping.

Survey of two local authorities in the Badulla district

August 2010 – SI was commissioned by Transparency International (TI) to conduct a survey on two selected local authorities in the Badulla district. The survey was conducted on service recipients of the Rideemaliyadda Pradeshiya Sabha and the Meegahakiula Pradeshiya Sabha. The findings of this survey gave insight into corruption and transparency practices at the two PSs, issues faced by service recipients and their level of satisfaction with service delivery.

Survey for Developments Alternatives Inc (DAI)

June 2010 – Development Alternatives Inc (DAI) of the USAID commissioned SI to conduct a survey to assess the attitudes and behaviors of the community members in Batticaloa before they implement their RISE program. The RISE program (Reintegration and Stabilization in the East) aims to foster economic and social security of targeted communities in the region and will assist to stabilize and develop the Eastern Province. Fieldwork took place during June and August 2010.

Study on the Garment and Tourism Sector and Migrant Workers: Understanding the impact of the Global Economic Crisis

2010 – The American Centre for International Labor Solidarity in Sri Lanka (ACILS) commissioned SI to conduct a study on the workers of three selected sectors in Sri Lanka – the garment, migrant and tourism sectors. This study aimed to understand the plight of the labor force in these sectors in the context of the global economic crisis. Fieldwork for the study took place during the period of December 2009 to January 2010 and 470 respondents were interviewed. Respondents consisted of those who had lost their jobs (either terminated by the employers or voluntarily resigned) and those who have not been victims of job losses in these 3 sectors during 2009.

KAP Survey in the Eastern Province
2010 – Together with the Legal Unit and the Peace and Conflict Unit of CPA, SI embarked on a study in end 2009 to assess the level of democracy in the Eastern Province, two years after it came under government control. Using qualitative and quantitative research methods, this survey assessed the knowledge, attitude and perceptions in the East – on broad areas ranging from democracy, security, awareness about development, etc from the view point of citizens. Respondents were asked questions on democracy, development, human rights, reconciliation and peace building in addition to questions on provincial councils, land issues and minorities. The survey was conducted in Ampara, Batticaloa and Trincomalee districts amongst 2067 individuals.

Link to report here.

Disaster Preparedness Endline survey
May 2010 – The American Red Cross (ARC) commissioned SI to conduct the Endline evaluation for their Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), which ended in June 2010. The DP program covers 9 districts in Sri Lanka – Matara, Galle, Kalutara, Colombo, Gampaha, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Badulla and Matale. The Endline survey consisted of a Household survey in 45 GNs and a School survey among teachers and students in 48 schools in the 9 districts. 612 individuals were interviewed for the household survey while 987 students and 643 teachers were part of the school survey. The Endline survey looked at respondents’ awareness of disasters most likely to affect their community, safe places they should go to in case of disaster, information sources, participation in drills and training, first aid – all of which were covered under the DPP activities at community level and village level.


Water and Sanitation (WatSan) Endline Survey

December 2009 – The Water and Sanitation program of the American Red Cross ended in December 2009 and in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the WatSan program and determine the change over time in the target districts of Galle and Matara, SI was commissioned by the ARC to conduct an Endline survey. This Endline survey consisted of 3 components – a household survey for the 3 main WatSan projects of the ARC, a school survey and an Institution and Community Infrastructure assessment.  The evaluation, which was the second Endline survey conducted by SI for the ARC, took place between December 2009 and January 2010 and was based on the indicators in the Logical Framework applicable to each of the projects under WatSan.

Sri Lanka Psychosocial Support Program
In August 2009, SI was commissioned by the American Red Cross to conduct an Endline survey for ARC’s Psychosocial Support Program (PSP). The PSP was implemented in tsunami affected districts of Gampaha, Colombo, Kalutara, Galle and Matara and was aimed at promoting and enabling psychosocial well-being of beneficiaries, humanitarian staff and volunteers. The Endline survey evaluated the effectiveness of Sri Lanka Psychosocial Support Program from 2005 – 2008 in the five districts. The survey consisted of two components – a household survey conducted among 1050 respondents in 30 GN divisions and a school survey among 1469 students and 745 teachers in 24 schools.  The final report also included a Baseline – Endline comparison of ARC indicators.

‘Views from Jaffna’ – Pre-Election Public Opinion Poll in the Jaffna Municipal Council area
July 2009 – SI in collaboration with Home for Human Rights (HHR) conducted an opinion poll amongst the people living in the Jaffna municipal area to assess their views in relation to the August 2009 Municipal Council election. This poll did not intend to forecast the election results but rather to assess the views of the residents in terms of their optimism or pessimism about their future, political interest and participation, and how they view the upcoming election. This poll was conducted amongst 880 randomly selected eligible voters in all 23 Wards in the Jaffna municipal council.  The field work was conducted from 22nd to 24th July 2009.

Download the report here.

Ownership, Access and Control of Women’s Land in the Ampara District
This study – ‘Ownership, Access and Control of Women’s Land in the Ampara District’ – was commissioned by the Muslim Women’s Research and Action Forum (MWRAF). SI assisted in developing the questionnaire as well as the data processing and analysis.

Peace Polls
2008 – 2010 – In Northern Ireland, public opinion polls were used as a tool to enhance the peace process by increasing party inclusiveness, developing issues and language, testing agreement proposals, helping to set headlines and add to the overall transparency of negotiations through the publication of technical analysis and media reports. In March 2008, Social Indicator with the technical support of Dr. Colin Irwin from the Centre for Irish Studies at the University of Liverpool, conducted “Peace in Sri Lanka” using the Peace Poll methodology in Sri Lanka with a sample of 1700 respondents in all parts of Sri Lanka except the Northern Province. Using the same methods, the survey work for the second poll was completed a year later in March 2009 to test the then preliminary APRC proposals against public opinion before the end of war. A year later in March 2010 the same proposals were tested again but with a larger sample (2400) that included the Northern Province.

Opinion Poll on the Usage of Tamil as an Administrative Language
October 2009 – The opinion poll on the Official Language Policy (OLP) was conducted by SI for the Foundation for Co-Existence (FCE) in order to strengthen FCE’s continued advocacy on this vital issue. The survey was conducted amongst the general public, public servants and participants of language policy training to assess their awareness, knowledge and attitudes towards the OLP. It was conducted in the districts of Ampara, Trincomalee, Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Colombo, Kandy and Puttlam among 818 respondents.


The Peace Confidence Index

2001 to 2008 – The Peace Confidence Index (PCI) has been a widely accepted policy tool on the conflict resolution process in Sri Lanka. Since its inception in 2001, the PCI received the wider attention of policy makers at all levels as the only scientific and continuous opinion poll on Sri Lanka’s conflict resolution process. The PCI surveyed approximately 1800 individuals across the country in each wave. Due to logistical and methodological concerns, the PCI excluded Jaffna, Kilinochchi, Mullaitivu and Mannar districts as well as areas that were not under government control in the districts of Vavuniya, Trincomalee, Batticaloa and Ampara. The first survey of PCI was conducted in May 2001 and the first PCI report was publicized in September 2001. SI conducted its 30th PCI study in November 2008.

Sri Lanka Religion Study
September 2008 – A longitudinal, multinational study in the world on religion, the “International Social Survey Programme – Religion Survey” (ISSP-Religion) is a continuous effort of cross-national collaboration on religion (the first two international waves were conducted in 1991 and 1998). Implemented for the first time in Sri Lanka by the National Opinion Research Centre (NORC) in the US, Social Indicator was selected as the local survey partner. Conducted in September-October 2008, the Sri Lanka data collection consisted of a sample of 1520 respondents belonging to various faiths as practiced in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan data formed part of the international datasets of this study.

The Chamber / Trade Association Assessment
August 2008 – Social Indicator conducted the study for The Asia Foundation to support the Chamber/Trade association strengthening program – the Local Economic Governance project. The main focus of the LEG project was to strengthen the Trade Associations and Chambers to become more self sustaining and thereby contribute to the growth of the local business environment and economy. The Chamber/Trade Assessment consisted of four components: A Climate Survey, Human Resources Audit, Survey with Members, and Survey with Non-Members. The climate survey (with all the Board members and staff members of Chambers/Associations) assessed the working conditions, perceptions of board members and staff on activities and the overall functioning of the organization. The Human Resources Audit obtained details of chamber activities and physical resources of the organizations. The Survey with members focused on obtaining feedback on services provided by the organizations, usage of facilities and satisfaction while the survey with Non- Members was aimed at getting feedback from a random sample of businessmen and traders who have not joined the Chambers and Trade Associations in their respective areas. 26 Chambers/Trade Associations in the Southern, Eastern, North-Western and Central provinces were part of this assessment.

Study on Equal Access to Justice

August 2008 – This qualitative baseline study was aimed at determining the impact of the Equal Access to Justice Project of the Ministry of Constitutional Affairs & National Integration since its inception in 2004. The study was conducted on behalf of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Ministry of Constitutional Affairs & National Integration. This study was conducted through a series of Focus Group Discussions and served to identify any further areas that the project could develop on the people’s access to justice. Further, it also provided a snapshot of the ground situation regarding access to justice in Sri Lanka, as well as the effectiveness of the various legal avenues for dispute resolution.

Study on Integrity in Local Government
August 2008 – In order to identify the various forms of manipulation, interference, non-adherence to rules and regulations and other forms of existing malpractices in local authorities, Transparency International Sri Lanka (TISL) (at the request of Sri Lanka Institute of Local Governance) commissioned SI to conduct a study in July-August 2008. The study looked into the attitudes of local government officials and members towards malpractices, while also giving opportunity to the stakeholders to identify the strategies that could be implemented to improve the integrity and accountability of the local government. This qualitative study consisted of in-depth interviews with Local Government officials, members of the staff and service recipients totaling 250 in the Districts of Badulla and Kurunegala.

Beneficiary Survey on the Tsunami Recovery Process
August 2008 – Together with the United Nations Development Programme, Social Indicator embarked on this beneficiary survey with the intention of providing an assessment of the tsunami reconstruction process from the point of view of the beneficiary – the end recipient. This assessment intended to supplement the Tsunami Recovery Impact Assessment and Monitoring System (TRIAMS) and any other evaluation that has been conducted based on indicators by service providers such as the state and the donor community. This second and final wave of the TRIAMS survey evaluated the following themes – Housing, Livelihood, Infrastructure, Basic social services (TRIAMS core indicators), as well as Disaster Preparedness and people’s consultation. Conducted in the East (Batticaloa, Trincomalee and Ampara) and the South (Hambantota, Galle and Matara), it gathered both quantitative and qualitative data for final assessment by interviewing 750 respondents.

April 2007 – The Tsunami Recovery Impact Assessment and Monitoring System (TRIAMS) was created in order to  have in place a monitoring system that makes periodic assessments of the tsunami recovery process, and thereby understand the impact of tsunami response efforts. The TRIAMS Country Action Plan for Sri Lanka included both quantitative and qualitative explorations of the tsunami recovery process. As part of this quantitative research, SI was commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to design and implement a perception survey that would be conducted twice a year for a period of three years, the findings of which will provide an assessment of the entire process from the recipient’s point of view. 1140 respondents from 5 tsunami affected districts – Galle, Matara, Hambantota, Ampara and Trincomalee – were interviewed.


Employee Satisfaction Survey for ‘Loadstar Tyres’

December 2007 – SI conducted a Climate Survey for Loadstar (Pvt) Limited at the Loadstar Midigama Tyre Division in Weligama. The primary objective of this study was to assess the climate within the organization and to identify the perceptions of the employees on the activities of the organization. SI conducted the climate survey with all the Managers, Executives and Staff as well as with 20% of the permanent shop floor employees at the Midigama Tyre Division.

A Survey on Corruption in in Sri Lanka

April 2007 – “A Survey on Transactional Corruption in Eight Public Institutions in Sri Lanka 2007” was a household survey commissioned by ARD Inc. as part of the Sri Lanka Anti-Corruption Program (ACP) of USAID. The survey captured the public experience in terms of corruption in eight public sectors and assessed public attitudes towards corruption. 3500 respondents from 17 districts were interviewed. The sectors were Education, Health, Local Government, Local Authority, Water, Electricity, Police and Judiciary. Due to growing speculation about corruption in Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), a series of questions about NGOs were included as well.

Ethnic Peace Survey for University of Michigan
2006/2007 – The University of Michigan commissioned SI to conduct a survey to support its global research study on ‘Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life’. The study envisaged understanding the factors which contribute to ethnic riots in multi ethnic societies. Thus, three major multi ethnic cities in Sri Lanka; Colombo, Kandy and Negombo were selected to conduct this study. The Civil Society Survey component was aimed at studying civil society organizations and their work on ethnic peace in Sri Lanka in the cities of Colombo, Kandy and Negombo.


Revalidation of Internally Displaced Persons

In 2006, SI conducted a census on IDPs in selected locations for United Nations High Commission for Refugees, Colombo and the Ministry of Resettlement. The first phase was titled “Revalidation of IDPs in Puttlam” and was conducted in January – April 2006. Phase II took place in May-June 2006 in Anuradhapura, Kurunegala and Colombo. More than 18000 IDPs were enumerated for the UNHCR’s database in both phases.

Survey on Sri Lanka Police – Public Attitude survey

March 2006 – Transparency International Sri Lanka undertook a project titled “An in-depth analysis into corruption within the Police Department” and as a part of the project, TISL commissioned Social Indicator to conduct a quantitative survey on “Attitudes towards Good Policing.” The survey was twofold – first involving the Police (Provider Survey) and second involving the Public (Public Attitude Survey). The Public Attitudes Survey was conducted to gauge the attitude of the public to ascertain their perceptions and satisfaction on the services of the police. The Public Attitude survey was conducted within the period of 14th February 2006 to 06th March 2006 through face to face interviews with a sample of 1400 individuals.


Focus Group Discussions on ‘The East is Calling’

December 2005 – ‘The East is calling’ was a 13 episode teledrama series produced by Young Asia Television (YATV) and funded by the Academy for Educational Development (AED). SI was invited by AED to conduct Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) in order to obtain viewer feedback and assess the public’s view on the teledrama series. The overarching objective of this teledrama series was to communicate the message of peace and coexistence through the popular media of television and illustrated the life of people from three communities – Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim, whose circumstances had brought them together in a tsunami refugee camp. The FGDs ascertained the impact of the teledrama series on the general public from different ethnic and religious groups across the country.

Tsunami Perception Survey for Transparency International
2005 – Transparency International Sri Lanka (TISL) commissioned Social Indicator to conduct a satisfaction survey amongst the Tsunami affected communities in order to supplement its tsunami reconstruction assessment study. The survey was restricted to tsunami affected areas in the South (Kalutara, Galle, Matara and Hambantota districts) due to the upsurge of violence in the Eastern Province. The Citizen Report Card methodology was used to assess the tsunami reconstruction process and only the government sector service providers came under the purview of the study. The surveyed individuals were asked about the quality of services (health, education, water and local administration) to assess the efficiency of tsunami reconstruction.

Use of Tamil as an Official Language outside the North and East of Sri Lanka
In 2005, the Foundation for Co Existence (FCE) commissioned Social Indicator to conduct a study to examine the current position of the implementation of the official languages provision in areas outside the North and the East, where there is a substantial presence of Tamil citizens. The study examined how 9 selected institutions of public administration, health and the judiciary functioned with regard to the implementation of the Official Language Policy. A total of 525 individuals were interviewed and they included from the institutions – managerial staff, non managerial staff, Tamil speaking public and from the two selected schools – principals, vice principals, Tamil medium teachers and Tamil medium students. Read the full report here.

Evaluation of the Linkage of Relief, Rehabilitation and Development (LRRD) regarding interventions in connection with the tsunami disaster in December 2004 – Sri Lanka Case Study
October 2005 – Social Indicator, along with Cvoter Foundation, India conducted this survey to assess the perceptions and experiences of the tsunami affected respondents on development, livelihood, and immediate tsunami aftermath. 915 respondents from 9 districts were part of this survey.

Pre Elections Poll on Presidential Election
October 2005 – Social Indicator conducted a pre-election opinion-poll on the eve of the 2005 Presidential Elections. 1200 respondents across 22 districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the time period of October 19 -22. Mullaitivu, Kilinochchi and Mannar districts were excluded from the survey, as well Tamil voters from the Trincomalee district due to security reasons. 1,200 male and female voters from all ethnic groups were randomly selected as respondents for this survey. Read the full report here.

Report Card Survey in 33 Local Government Authorities
September 2005 – Social Indicator was commissioned by The Asia Foundation in September 2005 to conduct a Report Card Survey in 33 local government authorities. In order to set the benchmark for a larger and more comprehensive survey, SI administered a basic Island-wide Report Card Survey focusing on the local government authorities, to obtain a broad overview of the existing situation, prior to embarking on the larger survey. The survey captured the awareness, usage, satisfaction, service standards, major problems with services, effectiveness of grievance redress systems, corruption encountered, participation and the expectations people have from their local authorities. The survey was carried out using a structured questionnaire administered through face to face interviews amongst a randomly selected sample of 1,676 respondents.

March 2005 – Survey on Sri Lanka Police – Provider survey
This study was initiated as a result of the outcomes of the South Asian Corruption Survey conducted in 2001 by SI on behalf of Transparency International Sri Lanka. The survey findings indicated that the police were perceived by the public to be the most corrupt of the surveyed sectors. In light of this, TISL commissioned SI to conduct a survey to ascertain the difficulties faced by the police department with particular focus on officers who have direct interaction with the public. The survey, conducted in February – March 2005, was a unique exercise where 770 randomly selected serving Police Officers were given an opportunity to freely bring to light the attitudes, problems and issues faced by them within the Police Department.

Rapid Assessment on the Vulnerability of Women in Garment Industry
January 2005 – The Rapid Assessment (RA) was conducted in January 2005 for the American Solidarity Centre (ASC) to gain an understanding of the conditions of female garment employees who had lost their jobs or were about to lose their jobs as a result of the termination of the quota system under the Multi-Fibre Agreement. The research assessed the current situation of female garment employees, the impact of the MFA on their lives, their vulnerability to trafficking and also gathered information on their future goals/plans.

ICTA Community Information Needs Assessment
2005 – The Information Communication Technology Agency of Sri Lanka (ICTA) was established with the objective of utilising ICTs to advance social integration, peace and economic growth. In furtherance of this objective, ICTA established the “Nanasala” or Knowledge Centre network, creating access to ICT facilities in the rural areas in Sri Lanka. In order to ensure that the content was appropriate to meet the needs of the community are deployed through the Nanasala network, ICTA commissioned Social Indicator to conduct an Information Needs Assessment in 6 different villages where the Nanasala network was in operation, to assess the information needs of the local people.

Demand Side of Child Trafficking in the Fireworks Industry
April 2005 – SI was commissioned by ILO-IPEC and CENWOR jointly to conduct a survey to fully tackle the issues pertaining to Demand Side of Trafficking in the fireworks sector, and to develop knowledge on the dynamics of the demand for children in this industry. The study was conducted in Gampaha & Kandy districts covering Western and Central provinces respectively. A total of 31child workers in the fireworks industry were interviewed for this study, along with 20 employers.

Care Lift – Women’s Access to and Ownership of Land and Property
January 2005 – As part of the larger study conducted by CPA on Women’s Access to and Ownership of Land and Property, SI was commissioned by the Legal Unit of CPA to conduct a perception study on the same subject in the North and the East. The objective of this study was to complement the findings of the in-depth study on the underlying causes and themes related to the issue, with the end result being communicated to CARE LIFT in order to facilitate the rectification of the situation. Fieldwork was conducted in Jaffna and Vanni while fieldwork in Batticaloa had to be abandoned due the tsunami. The survey was conducted using a semi- structured questionnaire, which was administered through face to face interviews with a sample of 200 respondents.


Climate surveys for MAS Holdings

2004 – MAS Holdings is a leading intimate apparel manufacturer in Sri Lanka, set up in 1987 with a global presence and a 35,000 strong workforce. In 2004, SI was commissioned by MAS Holdings to conduct a Climate Survey at their Strategic Business Units (SBUs) to assess the climate within the factories and identify the perceptions of the employees on the activities of the individual SBUs. Since the first survey in 2004, three more annual survey sessions have been completed in 2005, 2006 and 2007.

Survey on Gender Based Violence
In August 2004, SI conducted a study on Gender Based Violence (GBV) in the Batticaloa District on behalf of CARE Sri Lanka. SI conducted interviews with volunteers working for the mid wives within the district and using them as interviewers, conducted in depth interviews among 76 respondents who had experienced gender based violence.

General Elections of April 2004 (Three Waves)
March 2004 – SI’s pre-election poll in the run-up to the General Elections of April 2, 2004 consisted of three rapid waves, all completed within a period of one month (March 2004). Using a structured questionnaire and administered through face to face interviews, the poll was conducted across a countrywide sample of 1,800 respondents from 22 districts.

  • Download Wave 1 here.
  • Download Wave 2 here.
  • Download Wave 3 here.

Corporate Social Responsibility

February 2004 – The Sri Lankan Chapter of International Alert (IA), a non governmental organization based in the UK, commissioned SI to conduct a study on the Sri Lankan public’s perception on CSR and their expectations of the business community and the Business community’s perceptions and attitudes towards CSR.  The survey with the public was conducted using a semi- structured questionnaire which was administered through face to face interviews with 1,814 respondents in 22 districts. The survey with the community was conducted in 11 districts among 147 individuals.

Survey on Women’s Participation in Politics, the Peace Process and Public Life

January 2004 – Though women constitute more than 50% of the population in Sri Lanka, their representation in Parliament is only 4%. In order to spur reform in the field of women’s rights, the Prabodhini (‘awakening’) project was launched by the National Peace Council with the financial assistance of the European Union. Social Indicator (SI) conducted this survey in January 2004 to gauge the attitudes towards female involvement in regional and national decision making bodies in order to assess the impact of the Prabodhini project. The survey was conducted among 501 Sinhala and Tamil female respondents in the ten districts where Prabodhini works with partner organizations. The survey brought to light their political knowledge, status within the family, status in the society and attitudes towards participation in social activities, political activities and the peace process.


Conflict Management in the Eastern Belt of Sri Lanka
September 2003 – At the initiative of The Asia Foundation, SI conducted a study on Conflict Management in the Eastern belt of Sri Lanka in September 2003. This qualitative study conducted through Focus Group Discussions, was carried out in order to develop a framework for early warning and response to potential conflicts in the East.

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (KAPS) on the Peace Process of Sri Lanka
Beginning in May 2003, SI designed and implemented the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Survey (KAPS) on the Sri Lankan Peace Process in collaboration with the Academy for Educational Development (AED), USA. The second wave of KAPS was completed in 2004. KAPS provided a deeper and richer understanding of the peace process in Sri Lanka, thereby building the capacity of both the Government and Civil Society organizations and institutions to understand and better meet the interests, needs and concerns of the public with regard to the current peace process. The KAPS was a nationwide survey and 2980 respondents were interviewed during June 2003. 3,513 individuals in 21 districts were part of the sample in the 2004 survey.

Read the 2003 report here, and the 2004 report here.

A report card on four essential services in the city of Colombo
June 2003 – Citizen Report Cards (CRCs) are participatory surveys that solicit user feedback on the performance of public services. They go beyond being just a data collection exercise to being an instrument to exact public accountability through the extensive media coverage and civil society advocacy that accompanies the process. CRCs originated in 1994 in Bangalore, India, through the work of an independent NGO – the Public Affairs Center. The idea was to mimic the private sector practice of collecting consumer feedback and applying it to the context of public goods and services. SI introduced the Report Cards Methodology to Sri Lanka in June 2003. The Report Cards Survey Methodology captured citizen feedback on the quality of public services experienced by them. SI carried out a Report Cards assessment on four essential services (Health, Public Utilities, Education and Transport) in June 2003 to capture the experiences of those living within the Colombo Municipality vis-à-vis the services. The Report Cards team received its initial training from the Public Affairs Centre (PAC) in Bangalore, India. Interviews were conducted amongst a sample of 611 respondents, covering all five electorates of the Colombo Municipality – Borella, Colombo North, Colombo Central, Colombo West and Colombo East and were conducted from 14th to the 23rd of June 2003.

Peacebuilding in Sri Lanka
In February 2003, SI conducted an audit survey on “Peace Building Practices in Sri Lanka” on behalf of World Vision Lanka. The study was aimed at providing an insight into peace building activities carried out by selected organizations to assist World Vision to design their future peace building activities. This audit study assessed the peace buildings activities of various organizations, their staff capacity and outreach.

Survey on Child Labour

SI undertook a Rapid Assessment on the Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL) in Sri Lanka for the International Labour Organization’s International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (ILO/IPEC). This study is carried out in order to understand the nature of WFCL and the present situation with regards to three sectors – Building Construction, Garages and Fireworks.


Business Opportunity Proposals for Shell Live Wire Sri Lanka
April 2002 – SI was commissioned by the Shell LiveWIRE programme, a part of the Shell Gas Lanka community investment programme and the LiveWIRE Globalisation Programme pursued by Shell International, to develop Business Opportunity Profiles (BOPs) on selected industries that would provide aspiring Sri Lankan entrepreneurs between the ages of 16 to 32 years with background information on business ventures.

Survey on Corruption in Sri Lanka
2001/2002 – In order to strengthen and empower the civic society curb corruption, Transparency International commissioned a survey within the South Asian region in order to ascertain the extent to which corruption prevails in countries in South Asia. Social Indicator was commissioned to conduct the study in Sri Lanka. It was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire and administered through face to face interviews amongst 2,278 households in 17 districts. The survey covered several aspects, from individual’s perceptions towards corrupt sectors, their social attitudes towards corruption in society and their household experiences with regard to corruption in public service delivery within the previous year.


Assessment of Sustainable Livelihood Projects- Oxfam GB
October 2001 – SI provided analysis services to Oxfam GB in their assessment of their Sustainable Livelihood Projects. SI also developed ‘Repayment 2001’, a software package designed to store data and process reports for Oxfam GB’s Micro Credit project.

Cost of Living Survey for the American Solidarity Centre
April 2001 – The American Solidarity Centre {ASC), an American based labor rights organization in Sri Lanka, approached SI to be part of their steering committee to formulate a Cost Of Living Index (COLA). As an initial step towards this initiative, SI conducted an expenditure pattern survey amongst Garment and Tea Estate sector workers and this included working closely with key economists and trade union representatives.

A Public Perception Study on Garbage and Related Issues in Sri Lanka
January 2001 – SI conducted a survey to determine people’s perceptions and attitudes on garbage collection in urban areas of Sri Lanka, thereby moving towards a new venture in determining people’s participation in local governance and their views on the service delivery of Local Government Authorities. 875 respondents from 17 districts were included in this survey. Participatory democracy, privatization of garbage management, means of household disposal and the concepts introduced to control the current situation, such as Reduce, Re-use and Recycle (3R’s) were the areas focused on during this survey.


Assessment Study on Institute of Human Rights (IHR) Workshops
In November 2000, SI was commissioned by the Institute of Human Rights (IHR) to conduct an assessment study of two workshops conducted by the Institute in Bakamuna, Elahera and Puttalam, to educate and sensitize government officials and NGO workers on human rights.

Survey on Election Issues
SI conducted a poll in the run-up to the 2000 General Election with the objective of identifying key issues that could have an impact on voter behavior. Although one amongst many research organizations that conducted similar polls, SI’s poll extended to certain war torn areas as well. This nationwide survey interviewed 1,175 respondents. The findings of this study received wide media coverage and appeared in the national newspapers.

Consumer satisfaction of Telecommunication Services in Sri Lanka
May 2000 – This study was conducted in the Western province in association with the Legal Unit of CPA and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to examine consumer satisfaction of telecommunication services provided by Sri Lankan telecommunication service providers. For the first time the telephone interview technique was adopted in addition to the face-to-face interview technique. 853 individuals from Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara districts were interviewed.

Survey on Capital Punishment
February 2000 – SI conducted a poll to gauge the level of public awareness and support for the Government’s plan to re-implement the death penalty, public perceptions of the death penalty as an effective deterrent to violent crime, its effectiveness as opposed to life imprisonment and the extent to which such a punishment violates basic human rights. 1,982 respondents from 17 districts were interviewed for this survey.


1999 Presidential Election Poll
October 1999 – SI commenced operations with a pilot study in the Western province on the 1999 Presidential Elections to ascertain public perceptions on the political situation and the general trends in voter preferences. 815 individuals from the Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara districts were interviewed.

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